Verbs – raise/rise sit/set lie/lay

Verbs –   raise/rise sit/set lie/lay

Let us first look at the meaning of each verb and their simple present and past tense forms.

VERB MEANING EXAMPLE PRESENT conjugation PRESENT continuous SIMPLE PAST
raise to lift to a higher position or level.

to grow or care for from birth

Raise your hands above your head.

The farmer raises chicken on his farm

I raise
you raise
he/she/it raises
we raise
they raise
raising raised
rise to go up /to stand up The students rise from their seats to say hello. I rise
you rise
he/she/it rises
we rise
they rise
rising rose
sit to put/rest your bottom/buttocks  on a hard surface Leonor sits next to Jacqueline. I sit
you sit
he/she/it sit
we sit
they sit
sitting sat
set to put something down Bawi set the books on the desk. I set
you set
he/she/it set
we set
they set
setting set
lie direction or position.

to lie down,to rest

 

 

tell a lie ==> not the truth

Tennessee lies to the West of North Carolina.

I don’t feel well.I need to lie down.

 

Do women in your country lie about their age?

I lie
you lie
he/she/it lie
we lie
they lie
lying laylied
lay to put something down Charles lays the flag on top of the grave. laying laid

Here are some examples of each:

raise

rise

  1. The school raises the US flag every morning.
  2. The students raised their hands to ask a question.
  1. The soldiers rise at 4.a.m. every day.
  2. Last summer, Sam rose at 9 in the morning.

sit

set

  1. Lina sits in front of Rosa.
  2. Last week, Ramata sat behind Jean.
  1. Jane sets the drink on her desk, every night.
  2. Last night, Leonor set the drink on the floor.

lie/lay

lay/laid

  1. Yesterday, the dog lay on the sofa.
  2. The nearest beach lies 1 1/2 hours away.
  1. My, husband usually lays his keys on the counter.
  2. Yesterday, he laid them on the refrigerator.

Fill in the blank with the correct form of: raise or rise, sit or set, lie or lay.

(lie,lay)

  1. Lisa’s cats ______________on her bed every night .
  2. Where did you ____________ my keys?

 

(lay, laid)

  1. Yesterday, the children ________ in the grass enjoying the sunshine.
  2. Last Thursday, the students __________ their homework on the teacher’s desk.

 

(lying, laying)

  1. The soccer players are ____________ down on the soccer field because they are very tired.
  2. The baseball players are ______________ down their bats because they are protesting.

 

(sitting, sat)  

  1. Yesterday, Bassem _______________ next to Younus.
  2. Today he is _____________________ next to Ceila.

 

(set, sits)

  1. The old man _____________ on the swing, listening to the birds.
  2. She ________________ the drinks on the table for the customers.

 

(rises, raising)

  1. She is __________________ her children with strong values.
  2. The sun __________________ at 6 a.m.

 

(rose, raised)

  1. When the Pope walked by, the Catholics _________________ to their feet.
  2. The Thanksgiving Turkey was _____________ on a farm in North Carolina.

 

 

Present Perfect Tense

The present perfect tense is used for past events with a connection to the present and unfinished time.

Past events with a connection to the present examples:

I have lost my keys.

Mary has fixed my computer.

I haven’t read the book.

Unfinished Time examples:

I have lived in Raleigh since 1965.

Have you lived here all of your life?

Constructing the Present Perfect Tense

Positive statements

  Singular Plural
1st Person I have eaten We have eaten
2nd Person You have eaten You have eaten
3rd Person He has eaten They have eaten

Negative Statements

  Singular Plural
1st Person I have not eaten We have not eaten
2nd Person You have not eaten You have not eaten
3rd Person He has not eaten They have not eaten

 

Personal Pronouns

Personal pronouns represent specific people or things.

They need to agree in:

  • number
  • person
  • gender

Use the following table to help you out:

Subject Pronouns

1st Person Singular male/female I
2nd Person Singular male/female you
3rd Person Singular male he
female she
neuter it
1st Person Plural male/female we
2nd Person Plural male/female you
3rd Person Plural male/female/neuter they

I go to the store,

You go to the store.

He goes to the store.

We go to the store.

They go they store.

Word Order in English

Word order is very important in English sentences. In fact the word order can directly impact the meaning of the sentence. Let’s look at some examples. There is a big difference between The dog bites the boy and the boy bites the dog. In English we can determine the meaning of the sentence by the word order. Another way to say this is we can determine the meaning by the sentence structure.

One basic structure is Subject – Verb – Direct Object.

Example: I kick the ball. In this example I is the subject, kick is the verb and the ball is the object.

A slightly more advanced version is Subject -Verb- Indirect Object – Direct Object.

I will kick Mary the ball.  In this example I is the subject, kick is the verb and the ball is the direct object and Mary is the indirect object.

Another example:

Subject – Verb – Adjective – Noun

I like the red car. In this example I is the subject, like is the verb, car is the object and red is an adjective.

 

Adjectives

Adjectives are a very important part of language. If you’re in a lower level, I’m know that you have learned a few English adjectives already. If you’re in a higher level or have been in the US for a few years, you probably know many adjectives.

Adjectives describe things. They tell a little more. For now, let us think about adjectives that come before nouns (like house, car). As you learn more English, you will learn more about adjectives.

For example:  I have a old house. He has an new car.

Old is an adjective describing the house and new describes the car.

In English, we say, “a big, blue ball” not “a blue, big, ball”. Do you know why? It’s because there is a special order we use, when we want to say more than one adjective. The table shows the order we use and some examples. The general order is opinion, size, age, shape, color, material, origin, purpose. Do you see why we say “big, blue” and not “blue, big“? …big comes before blue in the table.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
opinion size age shape color material origin purpose
pretty big young round blue cotton Spanish bowling
ugly small old square yellow plastic English serving

Here are three examples:

  1. A pretty, young, Greek girl was singing at the church.
  2. The big, green, bird flew into the yard.
  3. This is a small, purple, plastic cup.

 

Still More Verb Tenses

Remember we have seventeen (17) verb tenses in English. This week we are looking at the next group called the future tense.

Tense Sample sentences When do I use it? Level
Future Simple Affirmative: He will speak.
Negative:  He will not speak.
Question: Will he speak?
  • When the action is in the future that cannot be changed
  • A spontaneous decision
Beginner
Future Simple(going to) Affirmative: He is going to speak.
Negative:  He is not going to speak.
Question: Is he going to speak?
  • If a decision is made for the future
Beginner
Future I Progressive Affirmative: He will be speaking.
Negative:  He will not be speaking.
Question: Will he be speaking?
  • An action that is going on at a certain time in the future
  • An action that is sure to happen in the near future
Intermediate
Future II Simple Affirmative: He will have spoken.
Negative:  He will not have spoken
Question: Will he have spoken?
  • An action that will be finished at a certain time in the future
Advanced
Future II Progressive Affirmative: He will have been speaking.
Negative:  He will not have been speaking.
Question: Will he have been speaking?
  • An action taking place before a certain time in the future
  • In order to put emphasis on the course of an action
Advanced

 

More Verb Tenses

Remember we have seventeen (17) verb tenses in English. This week we are looking at the next group called the perfect tense.

Why is it called perfect? The name comes from a Latin verb  which means ‘to finish.’ In English, the perfect tenses are connected to the idea that the end of the event is most important.

 

Tense Samples When do I use it? Level
Present Perfect Simple Affirmative: He has walked.
Negative: He has not walked.
Question: Has he walked?
  • When you need to put emphasis on the result
  • If the action is still going on
  • If the action stopped recently
  • If the finished action that has an influence on the present
Intermediate
Present Perfect Progressive Affirmative: He has been walking.
Negative: He has not been walking.
Question: Has he been walking
  • When you need to put emphasis on the course or duration (not the result)
  • If the action recently stopped or is still going on
  • If the finished action has influenced the present
Intermediate
Past Perfect Simple Affirmative: He had walked.
Negative: He had not walked.
Question: Had he walked?
  • When action taking place occurs before a certain time in the past
  • When you need to put emphasis only on the fact of the action (not the duration)
Advanced
Past Perfect Progressive A: He had been walking.
N: He had not been walking.
Q: Had he been walking?
  • When the action taking place occurs  before a certain time in the past
  • When you need to put emphasis on the duration or course of an action
Advance

Verb Tenses in English

Did you know there are seventeen (17) verb tenses in English?  Don’t panic! You don’t need all of the tenses to speak English. If you keep studying, you will eventually learn all of the verb tenses. This week we will look at the first four tenses and how they are used. Next week we will look at the perfect verb tenses.

Tense Sample Sentences When do I use it? Level
Simple Present Affirmative: He walks.
Negative: He does not speak.
Question: Does he speak?
  • The action is n the present taking place once, never or several times.
  • Actions that are taking place one after another.
  • When we are talking about actions set by a schedule.
Beginner
Present Progressive Affirmative: He is walking.
Negative: He is not walking.
Question: Is he walking?
  • The action is taking place now.
  • The action is taking place only for a limited period of time.
Beginner
Simple Past Affirmative: He walked.
Negative: He did not walk.
Question: Did he walk?
  • The action takes place in the past once, never or several times
  • The actions take place one after another
  • The action taking place in the middle of another action
Beginner
Past Progressive Affirmative: He was walking.
Negative: He was not walking.
Question: Was he walking?
  • The action was going on at a certain time in the past
  • The actions taking place at the same time
  • The action took place in the past and was interrupted by another action
In

 

If I were a rich man …

In English conditional tenses are used for speculation. We can speculate about what could happen, what might have happened, and what we wish would happen. In English, most sentences using the conditional contain the word if.  The unreal past is when we use a past tense but we are not talking about something that really happened.

A type 2 conditional is used to refer to a time that is at any point in time, and a situation that is unreal or unlikely. These sentences are hypothetical. The type 2 conditional is used to refer to a hypothetical condition and its probable result. In type 2 conditional sentences, the if clause uses the simple past, and the main clause uses the present conditional.

Example:  If I were a rich man, I would have a big house.

Visit this site for practice with the conditional tense.

Advanced Conditional Statements

image by WTCC instructor ecparent

Last week, we talked about how to make conditional statements – sentences with “if.” We looked at the two simplest types of conditional statements, zero conditional and first conditional. First, let’s review how to form a conditional statement. There are two parts:

  1. the dependent “if” clause – if + subject + verb, etc.
  2. the independent “then” clause – (then) subject + verb, etc.

You can put the two clauses in either order (dependent + independent OR independent + dependent).

If you give me bad news, I will cry.
I will cry if you give me bad news.

Again, notice these two things:

  1. When the “if” clause is first, you put a comma at the end of it (before the “then” clause). When the independent “then” clause comes first, there is no comma.
  2. I didn’t use the word “then” at all in these sentences. It is optional in the first sentence, but not in the second sentence. You can use “then” when you put the independent clause at the end of the sentence (If you give me bad news, then I will cry.), but you cannot use “then” at the beginning of the sentence.

You can review last week’s post to remember how to form zero conditional and first conditional.

Now let’s look at two MORE kinds of conditional statements – second conditional and third conditional.

Second Conditional

We use second conditional for imaginary situations and their probable results. Sometimes we imagine things that are possible, and sometimes we imagine crazy, impossible situations just for fun. The point is that these things are not true now. They are only hypothetical (imaginary).

If + subject + past-tense verb + , + subject + modal verb + base verb.
Subject + modal verb + base verb + if + subject + past-tense verb.

Here are some examples of second conditional statements:

  • If you drank 6 liters of water in one morning, you might die.
  • If I exercised regularly, I could lose weight.
  • Sally would meet more people if she went out more often.

In these sentences, we are imagining a situation. The situation is not real now. You are not drinking 6 liters of water this morning. I don’t exercise regularly. Sally doesn’t go out very often. We are imagining what is possible in a situation that is different from reality.

Imagine these crazy situations. Then finish the sentences with possibilities.

  1. If I had 10 fingers on each hand (20 fingers total), I…
  2. If I lived on Mars, I…
  3. If I were a mermaid/merman (part human, part fish), I…

Do you see anything strange about #3? It is not normal to use “were” with the subjects I, he, she, or it. However, in second conditional, when the verb in the “if” clause is BE, it is always “were,” no matter what the subject is.

Third Conditional

Third conditional is totally unreal because when we use third conditional, we are imagining a different past. We know the true past, but we want to imagine a different one and its probable results. Look at these examples.

  • True past: I didn’t study for the test. I failed the test.
    Imaginary past: If I had studied for the test, then I might not have failed.
  • True past: I went to the beach. I didn’t wear sunscreen. I got burned by the sun.
    Imaginary past: If I had worn sunscreen, I wouldn’t have gotten burned.
  • True past: I ate too much candy. I got sick.
    Imaginary past: If I hadn’t eaten so much candy, I wouldn’t have gotten sick.

In each one, we are imagining a different past. As you can see, we often use third conditional to talk about regrets. Here is how we form third conditional:

If + subject + past perfect verb (had + past participle) + , + subject + modal verb + have + past participle.
Subject + modal verb + have + past participle + if + subject + past perfect verb.

Third Conditional Discussion

Think about a decision that changed your life. Talk with your classmates about how your life would have changed if you had made a different decision. For example, I wanted to move to Europe. I had work opportunities in both Spain and Italy, and I visited both countries to decide where I wanted to live, but I decided to stay in Raleigh. Six months later, I started dating my husband, and a year after that, we were married. If I had moved to Europe, I wouldn’t have married my husband.

Now it’s your turn. Tell your story!

What if…?

When you want to ask a general question with an “if” clause, you can put “What” in front of the “if” clause. We usually ask these kinds of questions with second and third conditional because we are curious about a situation that isn’t real.

  • What if I lived on Mars?
  • What if I had studied for the test?
  • What if I had moved to Europe?

You can tell whether the question is second or third conditional based on the verb. A past-tense verb means it is second conditional. A past perfect verb means it is third conditional. These questions are very general, so you can answer them in many different ways.

  • What if I lived on Mars?
    You would have to wear a space suit every day.
    I would come to visit you.
    You might never see your mom again.
  • What if I had studied for the test?
    You would have passed the test.
    You would have passed the course.
    You might have attended a better university.
    You could have gotten a better job.
    I might never have met you.
  • What if I had moved to Europe?
    I wouldn’t have married my husband.
    We wouldn’t have had our daughter.
    I might have married a European.
    My life would be very different now.

Mixed Conditional

This sounds confusing, but it’s not too bad. In second conditional, we are imagining a different present. In third conditional, we are imagining a different past. In mixed conditional, we are imagining a different past that creates a different present. For example, if I had moved to Europe, my life would be very different now. See? I’m imagining a different past (if I had moved to Europe) and a different present based on it (my life would be very different now).

To form a mixed conditional, we use a third conditional “if” clause (for the past) and a second conditional “then” clause (for the present).

If + subject + past perfect verb (had + past participle) + , + subject + modal verb + base verb.
Subject + modal verb + base verb + if + subject + past perfect verb.

How would things be different NOW:

  • if you had stayed in your country?
  • if Michael Jackson hadn’t died?
  • if the Nazis had won World War 2?
  • if you had never started studying English?
  • if you had grown up with a different religion?

Write one complete sentence to answer each question, and ask your teacher to check it for you.