The Present Continuous

We use the present continuous to talk about something that happens continuously in the present.

It is formed with the verb to be + the verb with ing at the end.

For example: reading, writing, singing, playing. You write the present continuous form by putting –ing at the end of the verb.

I am reading We are reading
You are reading You are reading
He, She, is reading They are reading

 

If the verb ends in a consonant+vowel+consonant (but not w, x, y), then write the last consonant twice.  For example: sit==>sitting, mop==>mopping, swim==>swimming.

If the verb ends in a consonant+vowel+(consonant w, x, y), do not write the last consonant twice. For example: mow==>mowing, play==>playing, box==>boxing.

If the verb ends in a consonant+e, then drop the e. For example: write==>writing, drive==>driving, live==>living.

1. Always use a form of the verb (be). (I am, he is, it is, she is, you are, we are, they are). For example: She is working at the market.

2. Be careful how you write a question. For example:  What is she doing?

3. Don’t use the present continuous for everyday habits. For example: I eat breakfast every day.

4. Remember to put -ing on the end of present continuous verbs. For example: They are going to the mall today

Do you know the rule for using “how much” vs “how many”?

Sometimes, English speakers say: “How many sugars do you want?” Is that correct?

No. What they really mean could be: “how many spoons of sugar” or “how many packets of sugar“.

The main rule is to use “how many” for things you can count and “how much” for things you cannot count. You can count: tables, boys, chairs, oranges, dimes;  but you cannot count: water, wine, rice.

Do you know? Check yourself.=>

singular plural how much? how many?
apple apples x
sugar sugar x
banana
tooth
salt
child
penny
money
mango
coffee
quarter
carrot
Do you know the rule for using “how much” vs “how many”? Enter your ideas in the comments.
Sometimes, English speakers say: “How many sugars do you want?” Is that correct? No. What they really mean could be: “how many spoons of sugar” or “how many packets of sugar“.
Did you remember that the main rule is to use “how many” for things you can count and “how much” for things you cannot count. You can count: tables, boys, chairs, oranges, dimes;  but you cannot count: water, wine, rice.

Personal Pronouns

Personal pronouns represent specific people or things.

They need to agree in:

  • number
  • person
  • gender

Use the following table to help you out:

Subject Pronouns

1st Person Singular male/female I
2nd Person Singular male/female you
3rd Person Singular male he
female she
neuter it
1st Person Plural male/female we
2nd Person Plural male/female you
3rd Person Plural male/female/neuter they

I go to the store,

You go to the store.

He goes to the store.

We go to the store.

They go they store.

Part 2 Relative Clauses – The Object Clause

Adjective clauses are sometimes called relative clauses, because they related to something else in the sentence. The adjective clause modifies a nouns phrase in the sentence. It must have a subject and verb and it will begin with a relative pronoun like who or that.

The second type is the object clause.

In this adjective clause, the relative
pronoun is the object of the clause. This clause can modify both subjects and objects in the sentence.

Examples:

The people who we met seemed very kind.
The people that we met seemed very kind.

The students to whom we were speaking seemed very intelligent.
The students that we were speaking seemed very intelligent.

Yesterday, we saw the students to whom we were speaking to.
Yesterday, we saw the students that we were speaking to.

Relative Clauses

Adjective clauses are sometimes called relative clauses, because they related to something else in the sentence. The adjective clause modifies a nouns phrase in the sentence. It must have a subject and verb and it will begin with a relative pronoun like who or that.

Example: I know a person who can help you.

The first type of clause is the subject pattern clause:

In the subject pattern, the relative pronoun is the subject of the clause. These pattern clauses can both
subjects and objects of sentences:

The woman who / that spoke to us was very nice. This modifies the subject (the woman) of the sentence.

Do you know the woman who / that spoke to us? This modifies the subject (the woman) of the sentence.

 

Verbs – raise/rise sit/set lie/lay

Verbs –   raise/rise sit/set lie/lay

Let us first look at the meaning of each verb and their simple present and past tense forms.

VERB MEANING EXAMPLE PRESENT conjugation PRESENT continuous SIMPLE PAST
raise to lift to a higher position or level.

to grow or care for from birth

Raise your hands above your head.

The farmer raises chicken on his farm

I raise
you raise
he/she/it raises
we raise
they raise
raising raised
rise to go up /to stand up The students rise from their seats to say hello. I rise
you rise
he/she/it rises
we rise
they rise
rising rose
sit to put/rest your bottom/buttocks  on a hard surface Leonor sits next to Jacqueline. I sit
you sit
he/she/it sit
we sit
they sit
sitting sat
set to put something down Bawi set the books on the desk. I set
you set
he/she/it set
we set
they set
setting set
lie direction or position.

to lie down,to rest

 

 

tell a lie ==> not the truth

Tennessee lies to the West of North Carolina.

I don’t feel well.I need to lie down.

 

Do women in your country lie about their age?

I lie
you lie
he/she/it lie
we lie
they lie
lying laylied
lay to put something down Charles lays the flag on top of the grave. laying laid

Here are some examples of each:

raise

rise

  1. The school raises the US flag every morning.
  2. The students raised their hands to ask a question.
  1. The soldiers rise at 4.a.m. every day.
  2. Last summer, Sam rose at 9 in the morning.

sit

set

  1. Lina sits in front of Rosa.
  2. Last week, Ramata sat behind Jean.
  1. Jane sets the drink on her desk, every night.
  2. Last night, Leonor set the drink on the floor.

lie/lay

lay/laid

  1. Yesterday, the dog lay on the sofa.
  2. The nearest beach lies 1 1/2 hours away.
  1. My, husband usually lays his keys on the counter.
  2. Yesterday, he laid them on the refrigerator.

Fill in the blank with the correct form of: raise or rise, sit or set, lie or lay.

(lie,lay)

  1. Lisa’s cats ______________on her bed every night .
  2. Where did you ____________ my keys?

 

(lay, laid)

  1. Yesterday, the children ________ in the grass enjoying the sunshine.
  2. Last Thursday, the students __________ their homework on the teacher’s desk.

 

(lying, laying)

  1. The soccer players are ____________ down on the soccer field because they are very tired.
  2. The baseball players are ______________ down their bats because they are protesting.

 

(sitting, sat)  

  1. Yesterday, Bassem _______________ next to Younus.
  2. Today he is _____________________ next to Ceila.

 

(set, sits)

  1. The old man _____________ on the swing, listening to the birds.
  2. She ________________ the drinks on the table for the customers.

 

(rises, raising)

  1. She is __________________ her children with strong values.
  2. The sun __________________ at 6 a.m.

 

(rose, raised)

  1. When the Pope walked by, the Catholics _________________ to their feet.
  2. The Thanksgiving Turkey was _____________ on a farm in North Carolina.

 

 

Present Perfect Tense

The present perfect tense is used for past events with a connection to the present and unfinished time.

Past events with a connection to the present examples:

I have lost my keys.

Mary has fixed my computer.

I haven’t read the book.

Unfinished Time examples:

I have lived in Raleigh since 1965.

Have you lived here all of your life?

Constructing the Present Perfect Tense

Positive statements

  Singular Plural
1st Person I have eaten We have eaten
2nd Person You have eaten You have eaten
3rd Person He has eaten They have eaten

Negative Statements

  Singular Plural
1st Person I have not eaten We have not eaten
2nd Person You have not eaten You have not eaten
3rd Person He has not eaten They have not eaten

 

Personal Pronouns

Personal pronouns represent specific people or things.

They need to agree in:

  • number
  • person
  • gender

Use the following table to help you out:

Subject Pronouns

1st Person Singular male/female I
2nd Person Singular male/female you
3rd Person Singular male he
female she
neuter it
1st Person Plural male/female we
2nd Person Plural male/female you
3rd Person Plural male/female/neuter they

I go to the store,

You go to the store.

He goes to the store.

We go to the store.

They go they store.

Word Order in English

Word order is very important in English sentences. In fact the word order can directly impact the meaning of the sentence. Let’s look at some examples. There is a big difference between The dog bites the boy and the boy bites the dog. In English we can determine the meaning of the sentence by the word order. Another way to say this is we can determine the meaning by the sentence structure.

One basic structure is Subject – Verb – Direct Object.

Example: I kick the ball. In this example I is the subject, kick is the verb and the ball is the object.

A slightly more advanced version is Subject -Verb- Indirect Object – Direct Object.

I will kick Mary the ball.  In this example I is the subject, kick is the verb and the ball is the direct object and Mary is the indirect object.

Another example:

Subject – Verb – Adjective – Noun

I like the red car. In this example I is the subject, like is the verb, car is the object and red is an adjective.

 

Adjectives

Adjectives are a very important part of language. If you’re in a lower level, I’m know that you have learned a few English adjectives already. If you’re in a higher level or have been in the US for a few years, you probably know many adjectives.

Adjectives describe things. They tell a little more. For now, let us think about adjectives that come before nouns (like house, car). As you learn more English, you will learn more about adjectives.

For example:  I have a old house. He has an new car.

Old is an adjective describing the house and new describes the car.

In English, we say, “a big, blue ball” not “a blue, big, ball”. Do you know why? It’s because there is a special order we use, when we want to say more than one adjective. The table shows the order we use and some examples. The general order is opinion, size, age, shape, color, material, origin, purpose. Do you see why we say “big, blue” and not “blue, big“? …big comes before blue in the table.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
opinion size age shape color material origin purpose
pretty big young round blue cotton Spanish bowling
ugly small old square yellow plastic English serving

Here are three examples:

  1. A pretty, young, Greek girl was singing at the church.
  2. The big, green, bird flew into the yard.
  3. This is a small, purple, plastic cup.