Writing a Paper in English

A paper is a series of connected paragraphs. Writing good paper can be difficult. Here is how to draft, refine, and explain your ideas.

Decide the Topic of Your Paper

First, look at the writing prompt or assignment topic. Before writing a paragraph, it is important to think first about the topic and then what you want to say about the topic.

Create a Topic Paragraph

This paragraph introduces your paper. When your paper starts with a clearly stated topic,  your reader will know what to expect and, therefore, understand your ideas better.

Support Your Opinion or Point

After stating your introductory paragraph, you need to provide information to prove or support your point. Provide at least two examples to support your topic. E.ach example should be its own paragraph

Conclude
After supporting your point with relevant information, add a concluding paragraph. Concluding paragraphs link one paragraph to the next and provide another way to unify for your paper. Concluding paragraphs have an important role in paper writing. They bring the information you have presented together.

 

 

More information on Paragraph Writing

Writing paragraphs is an important skill in English writing. Here are some easy steps to writing a paragraph.
  1. Decide what you are going to write about. Look at your writing prompt and think about your response.
  2. Write a topic sentence. This sentence should summarize what your paragraph is about.
  3. Give examples to support your topic sentence. All of your examples should relate to your topic sentence.
  4. Write a concluding sentence. This sentence should restate your topic to tie your paragraph together.
  5. Always look over your paragraph and proofread your writing.

How do I Recognize a Gerund

Gerunds

How to recognize a gerund.

All gerund end in ing. However, all present participles also end in ing. What is the difference?

Gerunds function as nouns. Thus, gerunds can be subjects, direct objects, indirect objects, and objects of prepositions.

Here are examples of gerunds:

Since Helen was five years old, running has been running passion.

Running = subject of the verb has been.

Helen enjoys singing more than anything

Singing = direct object of the verb enjoys.

Helen gives singing lesson with a lot of energy.

Singing = indirect object of the verb gives.

 

 

Comparisons

Let’s compare 2 people or 2 things: example 1: Hamid is taller than Leonor. Example 2: The jacket is nicer than the dress. We compare people and things every day.

Here are a few rules to help you in forming and spelling the comparative:

rule simple comparative examples
1. adjectives with 1 syllable

add “er”

tall taller Hamid is taller than Leonor.
2. if the adjectives end with consonant-vowel-consonant ==>double the last consonant then add “er” big bigger The apple is bigger than the blueberry.
3. if the adjectives end with “e”==> add “r” late later Mario came to class later than Cindy.
4. adjectives with 2-syllables and ends in “y”==> change “y” to “i” then add “er” sunny sunnier It is sunnier today than it was yesterday.
5. some 2 syllable adjectives and 3-syllable adjectives add “more” expensive more expensive The red bag is more expensive than the black bag.
6. irregular adjectives==> change the word good

bad

better

worse

I have a better life in the US.

Your turn. Change the adjective to the comparative form.

fast
pretty
easy
early
polite
cold
high
young
short
long
thin
large
nice
hot
old
happy

 

Writing a Paragraph

Writing good paragraphs can be difficult. Here is how to draft, refine, and explain your ideas.

 

Decide the Topic of Your Paragraph

First, look at the writing prompt or assignment topic. Before writing a paragraph, it is important to think first about the topic and then what you want to say about the topic.

Create a Topic Sentence

Strong paragraphs are typically about one main idea or topic, This idea is called a topic sentence. The mains subject matter or idea covered in the paragraph. You can often restate the question as a sentence to create the topic sentence. When your paragraphs contain a clearly stated topic sentence,  your reader will know what to expect and, therefore, understand your ideas better.

Support Your Opinion or Point

After stating your topic sentence, you need to provide information to prove or support your point. Provide at least two examples to support your topic.

Conclude
After supporting your point with relevant information, add a concluding sentence. Concluding sentences link one paragraph to the next and provide another way to unify for your paragraph. Concluding sentences have an important role in paragraph writing. They bring the information you have presented together.

 

In short a good formula for paragraph writing is:

  • Tell me what you are going to talk about
  • Talk about your idea
  • Tell me what you just talked about

 

 

The Present Continuous

We use the present continuous to talk about something that happens continuously in the present.

It is formed with the verb to be + the verb with ing at the end.

For example: reading, writing, singing, playing. You write the present continuous form by putting –ing at the end of the verb.

I am reading We are reading
You are reading You are reading
He, She, is reading They are reading

 

If the verb ends in a consonant+vowel+consonant (but not w, x, y), then write the last consonant twice.  For example: sit==>sitting, mop==>mopping, swim==>swimming.

If the verb ends in a consonant+vowel+(consonant w, x, y), do not write the last consonant twice. For example: mow==>mowing, play==>playing, box==>boxing.

If the verb ends in a consonant+e, then drop the e. For example: write==>writing, drive==>driving, live==>living.

1. Always use a form of the verb (be). (I am, he is, it is, she is, you are, we are, they are). For example: She is working at the market.

2. Be careful how you write a question. For example:  What is she doing?

3. Don’t use the present continuous for everyday habits. For example: I eat breakfast every day.

4. Remember to put -ing on the end of present continuous verbs. For example: They are going to the mall today

How Much or How Many

Do you know the rule for using “how much” vs “how many”?

Sometimes, English speakers say: “How many sugars do you want?” Is that correct?

No. What they really mean could be: “how many spoons of sugar” or “how many packets of sugar“.

The main rule is to use “how many” for things you can count and “how much” for things you cannot count. You can count: tables, boys, chairs, oranges, dimes;  but you cannot count: water, wine, rice.

Do you know? Check yourself.=>

singular plural how much? how many?
apple apples x
sugar sugar x
banana
tooth
salt
child
penny
money
mango
coffee
quarter
carrot
Do you know the rule for using “how much” vs “how many”? Enter your ideas in the comments.
Sometimes, English speakers say: “How many sugars do you want?” Is that correct? No. What they really mean could be: “how many spoons of sugar” or “how many packets of sugar“.
Did you remember that the main rule is to use “how many” for things you can count and “how much” for things you cannot count. You can count: tables, boys, chairs, oranges, dimes;  but you cannot count: water, wine, rice.

Personal Pronouns

Personal pronouns represent specific people or things.

They need to agree in:

  • number
  • person
  • gender

Use the following table to help you out:

Subject Pronouns

1st Person Singular male/female I
2nd Person Singular male/female you
3rd Person Singular male he
female she
neuter it
1st Person Plural male/female we
2nd Person Plural male/female you
3rd Person Plural male/female/neuter they

I go to the store,

You go to the store.

He goes to the store.

We go to the store.

They go they store.

Part 2 Relative Clauses – The Object Clause

Adjective clauses are sometimes called relative clauses, because they related to something else in the sentence. The adjective clause modifies a nouns phrase in the sentence. It must have a subject and verb and it will begin with a relative pronoun like who or that.

The second type is the object clause.

In this adjective clause, the relative
pronoun is the object of the clause. This clause can modify both subjects and objects in the sentence.

Examples:

The people who we met seemed very kind.
The people that we met seemed very kind.

The students to whom we were speaking seemed very intelligent.
The students that we were speaking seemed very intelligent.

Yesterday, we saw the students to whom we were speaking to.
Yesterday, we saw the students that we were speaking to.

Relative Clauses

Adjective clauses are sometimes called relative clauses, because they related to something else in the sentence. The adjective clause modifies a nouns phrase in the sentence. It must have a subject and verb and it will begin with a relative pronoun like who or that.

Example: I know a person who can help you.

The first type of clause is the subject pattern clause:

In the subject pattern, the relative pronoun is the subject of the clause. These pattern clauses can both
subjects and objects of sentences:

The woman who / that spoke to us was very nice. This modifies the subject (the woman) of the sentence.

Do you know the woman who / that spoke to us? This modifies the subject (the woman) of the sentence.