The past participle is the verb form that ends in “-ed” for regular verbs (live-lived-lived). For irregular verbs, the past participle is sometimes the same as the irregular past from, but not always (go-went-gone). The only way to learn these irregular past participles is to memorize them. If you don’t already have a good list to study, here is one you can use.
We use the past participle in a number of different ways. We use the verb in the past participle form when we use the perfect tenses. For example,
I have lived in Raleigh for two years.
I had gone to the store earlier this week.
We also use the verb in the past participle form as an adjective.
He is excited that his team won the game.
The excited soccer fan yelled when his team scored a goal.
The past participle is also used with modals (would, could, should) in the past.
I should have known better.
He must have been sick today.
Another use for the past participle is in the passive voice.
The book was read by the class.
The car was driven in the snow.
In order to use a past participle in one of these ways, you must know them! After you study the chart of past participles above, try these online exercises to practice.