This week, we are going to learn about 4 words:
We will begin with an easy lesson, and then we will continue to some more difficult lessons. You can choose your lessons.
Lesson for Levels 1-3
Look at the chart, and read the explanations for each word.
image by WTCC instructor ecparent
THIS – Use for 1 thing close to you.
**Example** I am touching a book, or I can touch it because it is near me. It is only one book. I say, “This book is good.”
THAT – Use for 1 thing far away.
**Example** A book is far away. I cannot touch the book because it is far from me. I point with my finger and say, “That book is good.”
THESE – Use for 2+ things close to you.
**Example** I am touching 4 books, or I can touch them because they are near me. There are many books. I say, “These books are good.”
THOSE – Use for 2+ things far away.
**Example** Four books are on the book shelf. I am not near the book shelf. I cannot touch the books because they are far from me. I say, “Those books are good.”
Write a short sentence with each noun. If the noun is singular (near), add “this.” If the noun is singular (far), add “that.” If the noun is plural (near), add “these.” If the noun is plural (far), add “those.”
Example 1: table (near) – This table is tall.
Example 2: tables (far) – Those tables are old.
- cup (near)
- dog (far)
- sofa (near)
- babies (near)
- buildings (far)
- jacket (far)
- toys (far)
- bags (near)
- shirt (near)
- pants (far)
Lessons for Levels 3-6
First, make sure you understand the easy lesson. Now I will add some more information.
Some things are near or far in space. For example, I can touch something because it is close to me, or I cannot touch something because it is far away.
Things can also be near or far in time. For example, I am listening to music. The music is playing now. “Now” is close to me in time, so I can say, “this music” or “this song.” When the song is finished, I will probably say, “that song” because it is not so close to me in time now. Here are some more examples:
- I am watching a movie with my friend now. I say, “This movie is exciting!”
- I watched a movie with my friend yesterday. We are talking about the movie now. I say, “That movie was exciting!”
- I am at a party. I say, “This party is fun!”
- I am planning to go to a party on Saturday. I say, “That party will be fun!”
When we introduce people in English, we usually say “this” or “these.” We do not usually say “he,” “she,” or “they.” I know it’s strange because we usually use “he,” “she,” or “they” for people, but in the case of introductions, we use “this” or “these.” For example:
- These are my parents, Don and Sheila Mosby.
- This is my friend Kyle.
- This is Ashley.
- These are my sisters, Michelle, Angela, Shelley, Kathryn, Rebecca, Denise, and Lisa.
Lesson for Levels 5+
This is an advanced grammar lesson. First, make sure you understand the easier lessons. Now I will give you some more information.
This, that, these, and those are called “demonstratives” in English because they demonstrate (show) which thing/things we are talking about. We can use these words as adjectives or pronouns.
- When a demonstrative is an adjective, it has a noun after it. – this book, these people, those rooms, that song
- When a demonstrative is a pronoun, it includes the noun, so it does not have a noun after it. – That is my coffee. This is your shirt. These are our plates. Those were my friends. – You don’t have to say, “This shirt is your shirt.” It is only necessary to say “shirt” one time.
Maybe you noticed that we use demonstrative pronouns when we introduce people.
– This is my friend Kyle.
You can also use a demonstrative adjective in an introduction if you add a noun.
– This man is my friend Kyle.
In general, Americans speak very efficiently. We say things as clearly as we can with short sentences and words. If your sentence is clear with a demonstrative pronoun, it is not necessary to use a noun with a demonstrative.
When you use a demonstrative adjective, you never need these words:
You can practice using “this,” “that,” “these,” and “those” on this website. Click an exercise to take a quiz. Have fun! I hope THIS lesson helps you!