The grocery store is a large store. You can buy food at the grocery store. “Groceries” are food we buy in a store, not a restaurant. We buy groceries and prepare food at home. Sometimes, we call a grocery store a market or supermarket. We have many grocery stores:
The Fresh Market
You can also buy food at Wal-Mart or Target. They have a grocery section.
Watch this video.
In the video, you can hear these words. Here are the definitions.
produce – fresh fruits and vegetables
beef – meat from a cow (Beef packages might have these words: ground beef, steak, brisket, loin, rib, flank, or round.)
pork – meat from a pig (Pork packages might have these words: Boston butt, jowl, spareribs, loin, bacon, or ham.)
chicken – meat from a chicken (Chicken packages might include these words: wing, breast, leg, or thigh.)
dairy – eggs, milk, and foods made from milk (butter, yogurt, cheese)
bakery – a store (or area of a grocery store) where you can buy cakes and bread
Americans write and say dates differently from people in other countries. Do you know how to write and say dates correctly?
How to Write the Date
Americans always give the month first, the day second, and the year last. There are several different ways we can write it.
image by WTCC instructor ecparent
March 27, 2016
March 27th, 2016
03/27/2016 or 03-27-2016
3/27/16 or 3-27-16
You can use a slash (/) or a hyphen (-) between the numbers. There is no difference. When you write the name of the month, you must use a comma (,) after the date.
Sometimes, you will see instructions for writing the date that look like this:
The M means month, the D means day, and the Y means year. If a website or form asks for a date like this, you should use two numbers for the month (01, 09, 11, etc.), two numbers for the date (07, 10, 29, etc.), and four numbers for the year (1982, 2016, etc.).
Sometimes the instructions look like this:
Do you see the difference? In this case, you only use the LAST two numbers of the year – 82 (not 1982) or 16 (not 2016).
When you write the date in _ _ / _ _ / _ _ _ _ format, it is VERY important that you write the MONTH first and the DAY second.
How to Say the Date
Americans usually do not write “st,” “nd,” “rd,” or “th” (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.) on the date, but we ALWAYS say it. If you write, “3/27/2016,” you say, “March twenty-seventh, twenty-sixteen” (you can also say, “two thousand-sixteen”). Here is how we write and pronounce all the dates.
**We only add -st, -nd, -rd, and -th to the pronunciation of numbers in dates.**
photo by WTCC instructor ecparent
When we say years, we usually say the first two numbers together and the last two numbers together. If the year is 1982, we say the first two numbers – nineteen – and the last two numbers – eighty-two.
1980 – nineteen eighty
1776 – seventeen seventy-six
1430 – fourteen thirty
2016 – twenty sixteen
If there are zeros in the middle of the year (2002), the rules change a little. Here is how we say 2000 years:
2000 – two thousand
2001 – two thousand one
2002 – two thousand two
Here is how we say other years:
1903 – nineteen oh three
1409 – fourteen oh nine
1207 – twelve oh seven
1804 – eighteen oh four
Write and say the answers to these questions (search the internet or ask your teacher if you don’t know):
When were you born?
When did the United States become an independent country?
When did Princess Diana die?
When was Barack Obama born?
When is Thanksgiving this year?
When will Americans elect the next president?
When is the last day of your class?
What is today’s date?
What is an important date in your life (wedding, birth of a child, when you moved to the U.S., etc.)?
Today, our topic is contractions. You see contractions every day. Do you understand them?
What is a contraction?
These words are contractions. A contraction is two words together in one word with an apostrophe (‘). An apostrophe looks like a comma at the top of a word. Here is the pronunciation of apostrophe.
Why do we use an apostrophe?
When we put two words together, we remove (take out) some letters. We use an apostrophe in the place of those letters.
It is –> It’s – We remove the “i” from “is” and put an apostrophe in that place.
We are –> We’re – We remove the “a” from “are” and put an apostrophe there.
I am –> I’m – We remove the “a” from “am” and put an apostrophe in its place.
image by WTCC instructor ecparent
How do you pronounce contractions?
We only say the letters we can see. We do not pronounce the letters we removed. When I say, “He is,” I pronounce the “i” in the word “is” because I can see it. When I say, “He’s,” I do not pronounce the “i” because it is not there.
Practice saying these contractions. Ask your teacher to help you.
This song is from a musical play called Rent. It is about a group of friends in New York City in the 1990s. A man and a woman sing this song together. All of the verbs in “Without You” are in the present simple tense. This chart shows how to make present simple verbs:
image by WTCC instructor ecparent
Some students are confused about some of these subjects. I will explain a little.
We use “they” for all plural nouns (people or things).
– brothers = they
– telephones = they
– teachers = they
– cities = they
We use “it” for singular and noncount nouns (things only). We sometimes use “it” for animals (when we don’t know if the animal is male or female).
– telephone = it
– city = it
– grass = it
– coffee = it
– dog = it
We use “he” and “she” for singular people. We sometimes use “he” and “she” for animals (when we know an animal is male or female, like a pet). We RARELY use “he” or “she” for things.
– brother = he
– sister = she
– teacher = he (man) or she (woman)
– dog = he (male) or she (female)
Is it difficult to read in English? Sometimes, we write and pronounce words differently. For example, you read, “I walked to school” like “I walkt to skool.” Sometimes the spelling and the pronunciation is not the same.
But there is good news! You can learn pronunciation rules that can help you pronounce words correctly. About 80% of English uses pronunciation rules. The other 20% are exceptions.
There is an order to learning the 44 sounds of English.
consonants (b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z)
5 short vowels (a, e, i, o, u)
words with short vowels (cat, leg, lip, mop, rug)
consonant blends (brush, grass, smart, etc.)
5 long vowels (a, e, i, o, u)
words with long vowels (late, meet, like, smoke, flute)
exceptions to the rules
If you want to start with the letter sounds, click here. (This website is for children, but is the best one for hearing different sounds!)
Today we will look at short A.
Click on this link to hear a story. Practice reading the story. Repeat after the narrator. Does your “a” and his “a” sound the same?
Listen to the story again and write the word.
Dan has a ____________.
The _________ is for work.
He has a _________ in his van.
He looks at the _______ a lot.
He _________ go west.
He _________ go east.
He _________ go north.
He _________ go south.
Dan is ___________ to have a ________ in his van for work.
Do you forget if you need to say, “at work” or “in work”, “on Sunday” or “in Sunday”?
You are not alone!
Many people have problems with prepositions in English. Prepositions are small words with a big meaning! There are more than 150 prepositions in English! Wikipedia lists 521! That’s a lot! This link gives you access to a free eBook from EnglishClub with a full list and examples of prepositions. It’s 56 pages long, so I don’t recommend that you print it, but you can use it as an online resource.
The good news is, it’s not necessary to memorize the entire list. But, you should study as many as you can. Today we’ll look at some of them and how to use them.
What’s a preposition?
A preposition is a word that shows when, where, or how something was done.
I have class on Mondays.
The boy jumped into the lake.
Sarah opened the lock with a key.
How do I use prepositions?
The word “preposition” means “pre- position.” Therefore, they go in front of another word, usually a noun.
Prepositions of Place
(photo by WT instructor JLN)
These prepositions show where things are.
In this picture, the bowls are beside (next to) the glasses. They are above the plates and the cups. The plates and cups are under the bowls and glasses. The plates are between the glasses and the cups. One bowl is inside another bowl. All of the dishes are inside the cabinet.
Prepositions of Time
These prepositions tell when you do something. In, On, and At are the three most common prepositions.
general month, year, time of day, general time
in January, in 2012, in the morning, in the future
on Christmas Day, on July 14th, on Saturday
specific time, *night
at 7:00 at night
Prepositions of Agent
These prepositions show how something is done.
The glass is filled with water.
The book was written by Cervantes.
For more lists and exhaustive explanations of prepositions, click here or here.
What is a verb? A verb is a word that shows action. Here are some verbs:
WALK (photo by WT instructor Jaimie Newsome)
COOK (photo by WT instructor JLN)
SLEEP (photo by WT instructor JLN)
DRIVE (photo by WT instructor JLN)
“Be” is also a verb (I am, you are, etc.)
Verbs change by time and person. By time, you can say, “I walk” (present), “I am walking” (present continuous), “I walked” (past), “I will walk” (future), “I would walk” (conditional) “I have walked” (present perfect), etc. etc. etc. For a full list of English tenses (time), click here or here.
Some languages change verbs, depending on each person. For example, “go” in French: “Je vais, tu vas, il va, nous allons, vous allez, ils vont.” Every verb is different by every person.
But in English, there are only two forms of changing the verb.
I, You, We, and They are the same. He, She, and It are the same.
For example: I, you, we, they –> go He, she, it –> goes
In the present tense, you put an -s on 3rd person singular verbs. (You can read more posts about present tense here and here.)